Presented by 
Wm. Max Miller, 
M. A.

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XVII'th
Dynasty

Gallery I


XVIII'th
Dynasty

Gallery I

Gallery II
Including the mummy identified as Queen Hatshepsut.

Gallery III
Including the mummy identified as Queen Tiye.

 Gallery IV
Featuring the controversial KV 55 mummy. Now with a revised reconstruction of ancient events in this perplexing tomb.

Gallery V
Featuring the mummies of Tutankhamen and his children. Still in preparation.


XIX'th
Dynasty

Gallery I 
Now including the
mummy identified as
Ramesses I.


XX'th
Dynasty

Gallery I


XXI'st
Dynasty

Gallery I

Gallery II

21'st Dynasty Coffins from DB320
  Examine the coffins
of 21'st Dynasty Theban Rulers.


  Unidentified  Mummies

Gallery I
Including the mummy identified as Tutankhamen's mother.



About the Dockets

Inhapi's Tomb

Using this website for research papers

Acknowledgements

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Biographical Data about William Max Miller
 


Special Exhibits

The Treasures of Yuya and Tuyu
  View the funerary equipment of Queen Tiye's parents.

 Tomb Raiders of KV 46
How thorough were the robbers who plundered the tomb of Yuya and Tuyu? How many times was the tomb robbed, and what were the thieves after? This study of post interment activity in KV 46 provides some answers.
 

Special KV 55 Section
========

Follow the trail of the missing treasures from mysterious KV 55.

KV 55's Lost Objects: Where Are They Today?

The KV 55 Coffin Basin and Gold Foil Sheets


KV 55 Gold Foil at the Metropolitan

Mystery of the Missing Mummy Bands

KV 35 Revisited
See rare photographic plates of a great discovery from Daressy's Fouilles de la Vallee des Rois.

Unknown Man E  
Was he really
buried alive?

The Tomb of Maihirpre
Learn about Victor Loret's important discovery of this nearly intact tomb in the Valley of the Kings.

Special Section:
Tomb Robbers!
Who were the real tomb raiders? What beliefs motivated their actions? A new perspective on the ancient practice of tomb robbing.

Special Section:
Spend a Night
with the Royal Mummies

Read Pierre Loti's eerie account of his nocturnal visit to the Egyptian Museum's Hall of Mummies.

Special Section:
An Audience With Amenophis II
Journey once more with Pierre Loti as he explores the shadowy  chambers of KV 35 in the early 1900's.


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Most of the images on this website have been scanned from books, all of which are given explicit credit and, wherever possible, a link to a dealer where they may be purchased. Some images derive from other websites. These websites are also acknowledged in writing and by being given a link, either to the page or file where the images appear, or to the main page of the source website. Images forwarded to me by individuals who do not supply the original image source are credited to the sender. All written material deriving from other sources is explicitly credited to its author. 
Feel free to use  material from the Theban Royal Mummy Project website. No prior written permission is required. Just please follow the same guidelines which I employ when using the works of other researchers, and give the Theban Royal Mummy Project  proper credit on your own papers, articles, or web pages. 

--Thank You
 

This website is constantly developing and contributions of data from other researchers are welcomed.
Contact The Theban Royal Mummy Project at:
anubis4_2000@yahoo.com

Background Image:  Wall scene from the tomb of Ramesses II (KV 7.) From Karl Richard Lepsius, Denkmäler (Berlin: 1849-1859.)

 

 


NeskhonsHeader.jpg

The Coffins of Neskhons

    Close inspection of inscriptions on the two coffins and coffin board of Neskhons revealed that they had originally belonged to a woman named Isiemkheb who has been tentatively identified by Kenneth Kitchen as Nekhons’ aunt, Isiemkheb-C, the wife of Menkheperre-A. (TIP, 474f.) Niwinski, however, proposes that the original owner of Neskhons’ coffins and coffin board was Pinudjem II's first wife Isiemkheb-D, whose mummy was also found in DB320. Niwinski argues that Pinudjem II turned his affections away from Isiemkheb-D when he married the younger Neskhons. When Neskhons unexpectedly died prior to having a suitable funerary ensemble prepared for her burial, Pinudjem II gave her his first wife’s coffins. Isiemkheb-D, now dispossessed of her original burial equipment, was forced to have a second set of coffins made for herself and these were the ones in which she was found in DB320. (JEA 74, [1988] 226ff.)
   The mummy of Neskhons was discovered in only one of the two coffins--presumably the inner one, although this cannot be determined with any certainty because the record of DB320's discovery and subsequent clearance is vague and often inconsistent on this point. The lid of this inner coffin and the mummy board which accompanied it had both been damaged, and had the gilded hands and faces removed. The outer coffin from this set was intact. One of these two coffins was found to contain the mummy of Ramesses IX, but, thanks to the inefficient manner in which the find was documented, no one today can be certain about which mummy was found in which coffin.
   Reeves proposes an interesting theory to explain how the mummy of Ramesses IX ended up in one of the coffins of Neskhons. He speculates that Neskhons may have donated one of her coffins for use in the burial of Ramesses IX, and points out that linen dockets on this king's mummy indicate that the linen employed to re-wrap him had been donated by Neskhons. Perhaps her involvement with the reburial of Ramesses IX had gone beyond the provision of fresh wrappings to also include the donation of one of her coffins. However, one piece of evidence that could be used against this argument is the observable fact that no attempt was made to modify either of Neskhons' coffins for the burial of a male. Even the simple expedient of replacing the fully extended feminine hands on the coffin lids with masculine clenched hands was not attempted. Hands served as important gender markers on 21’st Dynasty “Yellow” coffins (hands with extended fingers were used for coffins of women and clenched hands appear on the coffins of men), and Rogerio Sousa observes that even when coffins had been hastily modified for recycling, “the hands are usually changed according to the sex of the new owner.” (GCSS, 61f.) Given this common practice of giving recycled coffins accurate gender markers, one would think that a coffin being piously donated for the reburial of a revered male ancestor would have received some form of modification to at least make it gender-appropriate. Edward Loring provides an even more telling argument against the “donation” theory formulated by Reeves by pointing out that Neskhons never had any coffins of her own to donate! She had obviously died young, before having a set of her own coffins prepared, which is precisely why she was given the coffins of Isiemkheb in the first place. (TRC, 71.)
   Michel Dewachter theorizes that Ramesses IX was mistakenly put in Neskhon's coffin in DB 320 by necropolis workers during one of the caching operations. However, since Neskhon's original burial was in DB 320 in Year 5 of Siamun and occurred many years before the caching of Ramesses IX in the tomb (an event which occurred after Year 11 of Shoshenq I according to the chronology of Reeves), it seems unlikely that the kind of mix-up referred to by Dewachter would have occurred. Erhart Graef also proposes a mix-up of coffins and mummies but dates its occurrence to the time of DB320’s clearance in 1881. He argues that the heavy nested set of Neskhons' coffins would have been separated in order to make hoisting them up the deep entrance shaft of the tomb easier. Graef speculates that the mummy of Ramesses IX may have been found without a coffin and was placed in Neskhon’s outer coffin, which was conveniently empty and available at that moment, in order to safely ship it to Cairo. When the coffin arrived at its destination and was opened, it was erroneously assumed that Ramsses IX had been placed within it in ancient times. (TRC, 59.)
   The kind of damage sustained by the coffins of Neskhons (in which an intact outer coffin concealed a violated inner one) is familiar to scholars of DB 320: the coffins and coffin boards of Maatkare-Mutemhet, Masaharta, and Isiemkheb-D were all damaged in an identical fashion. Reeves argues that this type of pilfering was probably done by those who had official access to the burials rather than by thieves who later broke into the tomb. Salima Ikram and Aidan Dodson believe that members of Pinudjem II's burial party had engaged in such pilfering activities and had violated the coffins of Isiemkheb-D. Since the burial of Neskhons was also in place in DB320 at the time of Pinudjem II’s burial, her coffins could have been subjected to pilfering by the same individuals. (Source Bibliography: CCR, 110ff.; pls. XLV, XLVII, XLIX; DRN, pp. 189, 213, no. 22; 218 n. 57; 219 n. 68; 256; GCSS, 61f; JEA 74, [1988] 226ff; MiAE, p. 330; TIP, p. 474f; TRC, 59, 71.) (Source Abbreviation Key)

   
Black and white photo of Neskhons' outer coffin lid and interior of basin 
from Georges Daressy's Cercueils des cachettes royales (Cairo, 1909.)
Color photo of outer coffin lid from CESRAS. Click black and white
photo to enlarge.

 

  
CESRAS close ups of the outer coffin's face.
 


CESRAS close up of outer coffin decorations.
 

 
CESRAS close up of outer coffin decorations.
 


CESRAS close up of outer coffin decorations.
 

CCRNeskhonsInner NeskhonsInnerCoffinBasin
(Left) Black and white photos of face of Neskhons' inner coffin lid and its reverse; (Right) inner coffin
basin from Georges Daressy's Cercueils des cachettes royales (Cairo, 1909.)
Click to enlarge.
 

CCRNeskhonsBoard CESRASNeskhonsBoard
Left: exterior of coffin board. Center: Interior of coffin board.
Right:CESRAS color photo of coffin board's exterior.


The Center for Egyptological Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences (CESRAS) maintains an extensive collection of online images available for public use on Flickr. The above CESRAS color images of the coffins and coffin board of Neskhons provide a valuable photographic record of these beautiful objects, currently on display at the Egyptian Museum in Cairo. Additionally, CESRAS has posted large size scans of many of the photographic plates from George Daressy's historically important 1909 work, Cercueils des cachettes royales which are also featured on this page. More close up images of this coffin's decorations and inscriptions may be seen by going to the CESRAS Neskhons photostream.


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